Genealogy Hans Högman
Copyright © Hans Högman 2020-06-05

Svensk/Engelsk ordlista över släktforskningstermer, yrken /

Swedish / English dictionary - Genealogy Terms, Occupations

Swedish/English Dictionary, Genealogy Terms - 1

Below you will find a dictionary with words and expressions you might come across while reading articles about Swedish genealogy. Use your browser's search function to find "your" word in the dictionary below.

Genealogy Terms A - E

Adel Noble (of noble birth) / The nobility (aristocracy) Adelsman Nobleman (peer) Amiralitetet The Admiralty (Navy) - the Admiralty Board Ana (förfader) - singular Ancestor (forefather) / a person in an ancestor chart Anor (förfäder) - plural Ancestors (forefathers) / persons in an ancestor chart Ansedel / personakt A personal record containing biographical data about an ancestor Antavla Ancestor chart, family tree. A chart where a specific person is the starting point for a genealogical study of this persons ancestors. Anförlust Pedigree collapse. A married couple normally have eight ancestors in the second generation, four on each side. However if two cousins marry they will partly have jointly grandparents. We have “lost” 2 persons in the second generation (6 instead of 8). This kind of situation in an ancestor chart is called “anförlust” in Swedish. Arrendator Tenant farmer Arrende Tenancy Arv Inheritance Arvsskifte Distribution of an inherited estate. Assessor Deputy judge in a court of law Barbarnsbarn Great-grandchildren Barn Children Barnbarn Grandchildren Barnhus/barnhem Orphanage Barnmorska Midwife Bataljon Battalion Begravning Burial / funeral Begravd i stillhet / begravd i tysthet ”Begravd i stillhet” or ”begravd i tysthet” means that it was a quiet funeral with only the closest family present. Berg Mountain Bergskollegium A department called Bergskollegium handled the Government control of the mining industry. This department has had different names throughout the centuries but the name Bergskollegium was used from 1744. Bergslag Mining district Bergsman A bergsman was the occupant of a bergshemman, a mine proprietor. The Bergsman could the sole owner or a part owner. So, a Bergsman was in the mining business. Bergmästare Mine-inspector. A bergmästare was appointed by the government and subordinated the Bergskollegium. The bergmästare’s job was to supervise the mining operations within his jurisdiction on behalf of the government. More exactly, among a Bergmästare’s duties was inspections and examinations the mines and the mining industry, evaluation of mines, supervision of government forests and supervision subordinated mining clerks, supervise that mining regulations were followed etc. Among his responsibilities was also to judge in disputes regarding mining matters in a special court of law called Bergstinget (Mining court of law). In the court the bergmästare had 7 assistants called nämndemän (A "nämndeman" is an appointed layman in a court of law – a lay assessor). The criminal cases could vary, for example cheating with weighing, payments, fractions between miners, or thefts. Larger cases like manslaughter or arguments about proprietorship to forests used by the mines etc was handled by the Häradsrätt – the ordinary district court of law in the countryside. A Bergsting session was held once a year, normally in May or June and was announced in the churches at the latest 10 weeks prior to the beginning of a Bergsting. The special courts of law the Bergsting represented were abolished in 1851. From then the mining cases were handled by the ordinary courts of law. Bergmästardöme Sweden was subdivided into 11 Bergmästardömen, and from the middle of the 18th century 12 bergmästardömen. A bergmästardöme was a territorial area (jurisdiction) and the term itself could be translated into mine-inspector’s jurisdiction. Bevis Evidence Beväring Conscript (soldier), recruit, draftee Biskop Bishop Bisittare Assessor, member of a district court of law Bonde Farmer, freeholder Borgmästare Mayor Bouppteckning Estate inventory proceeding Bouppteckningsdokument Probate records / estate inventory Bror Brother Brorsdotter Niece Brorson Nephew Brud Bride Brudgum Groom Bruk (ex: järnbruk eller papperbruk) Mill/works, for example ironworks or paper mill Bruksarbetare Laborer at a mill/factory/works. Ironworks: ironworker / foundryman. Paper mill: millman. Brukspatron Works proprietor. Foundry (ironworks) proprietor. (Paper) mill owner Brylling/fyrmänning Third Cousin Bröllop Wedding By Village Båtsman (motsv soldat) Seaman/deck hand (Navy personal provided by the Allotment System) Böter Fine (legal) Det stora nordiska kriget The Great Nordic War (1700 - 1721) Dombok Court records (court of law) Domprost Cathedral Dean (church) Domsaga The territorial district of a Häradsrätt. Domstol Court of law Dop Baptism/Christening Dopvittne Sponsor / Godparent Dotter Daughter Dragon Dragoon; A Dragoon was formerly mounted infantry. They traveled on horseback to the battlefield but they fought as foot soldiers. As mounted infantry they were very mobile units. It happened that dragoons fought as cavalry in battles. However, this was a type of warfare they weren't trained for and could end up in disaster. During the 18th century the dragoons were more and more used as cavalry and therefore also trained as cavalry. Finally it was only the name that separated them from other cavalry. During the 19th century dragoons was a term for heavy cavalry. Drottning Queen Dräng Farm hand Dödsboken Death records Dödsfödd Stillborn Döpa Baptize/Christen Egendom Property / estate Egendomsägare Owner of a property / estate. (An older Swedish spelling is: Egendomsegare) Eriksgata An Eriksgata was a King’s first tour of the country after being crowned

Genealogy Terms F - J

Faddrar (vid dop) Witnesses (at baptism) Far Father Farbror Uncle (father's brother) Farfar Grandfather (father's fathers or paternal grandfather) Farfars far Great-grandfather (on the father's side - paternal) Farmor Grandmother (father's mother or paternal grandmother) Faster Aunt (father's sister) Fattig Poor Fattighus Workhouse/poorhouse Fattigjon Pauper Fideikommiss Entailed estate Filare (yrke) Filer. A "filer" was a craftsman working for example in a workshop filing off or smoothing parts made of steel or iron with a file. Casting shops weren’t able to cast parts with 100% precision in the past. In order to fit different parts together filers were needed to file off or smooth the parts in order to achieve the required precision. There were also other types of filers; for example, filers sharpening sawblades. Fiskare Fisherman Fjärdingsman Parish constable (UK) / Sheriff's Deputy (US) A fjärdingsman was a deputy and didn't have the right to act in police matters on his own. He always had to act on orders by the länsman. See also länsman. Flottan (örloggsflottan) The Navy Flottare Log driver / Floater Log driving or floating was a way of conveying timber or logs from the locale of lumbering to sawmills and pulp mills downstream using the current of a river. The people employed to do this were called floaters or log drivers. Flottning Conveying timber in floats, log driving Flytta Move. "Flytta från" = move from. "Flytta till" = Move to. Flyttbetyg Moving certificate Forskning Research Fort/Borg Fortress Fotsoldat Foot soldier Fregatt Frigate Friherre/Friherrinna Baron/Baroness Frånskild Divorced Frälsebefallningsman A frälsebefallningsman was a person authorized by a noble family to oversee a castle/estate and its agricultural produce. In other words, an administrator of a landed estate owned by a noble family (fräsle), i.e. a bailiff. Furir Sergeant Fru Mrs. Fröken Ms. Fånge Prisoner Fältväbel Sergeant major Fängelse Prison Född Born Födelse Birth Födelsebevis, födelseattest Birth certificate Födelseboken Birth records Födelseort Place of birth Församling/socken Parish. See socken Föräldrar Parents Gallärflottan Galley Feet Garnison Garrison Generaldirektör Agency Director (US) Generalmönsterrulla General-muster roll Gesäll Journeyman Gesällprov Qualifying piece of work for an apprentice to become a journeyman in a guild Gevaldiger An occupation title used in different lines of occupations such as police, military, and prisons. Gevaldiger was a title used by the Swedish police until 1850. Stadsgevaldiger was a police officer in a city and Landsgevaldiger was a kind of police officer in rural areas. The Stadsgevaldiger was also known as Polisgevaldiger. So, a Stadsgevaldiger was a police officer. A superior police title was Övergevaldiger. The title gevaldiger has also been used as a title of an occupation, within the correctional care, for prison officers, i.e. Fånggevaldiger. One of his duties was to supervise the transportation of prisoners. Within the military, gevaldiger was a kind of military police (Profoss) known as Regementsgevaldiger (Provost-marshal). In mining areas, there was the Bergsgevaldiger. Gift (som i civilstatus) Married Gods (slott etc) Estate, Manor Godsägare Landed proprietor, landowner, estate owner, land lord Grenadjär A form of infantryman (Grenadier) Greve/Grevinna Count (Earl in the UK) / Countess Grosshandlare Wholesale dealer, wholesaler Gruva (järngruva) Mine (iron mine) Gruvarbetare Miner Gårdsfogde A gårdsfogde (also inspektor, befallningsman, and rättare) was a person hired to oversee or manage a manor/large farm for the owner. Today we would call such a hired person “förvaltare” which translates into “bailiff” or “farm bailiff”. Gästgivare Innkeeper Gästgiveri Inn Hammarsmedsämbetet (Skrå) The guild for hammersmiths Handelsman Merchant Hantverkare Craftsmen / artisan Hembygdsgård Local history center (US) / Village hall (UK) / Community center Hemman Homestead, freehold Hemmansägare Farmer, freeholder, owner of a homestead Hemvist Residence Herr Mr. Herrgård Country estate, Manor Hertig/Hertiginna Duke/Duchess Hovrätt Circuit court of appeal (Regional court) Hovrättsråd Judge of appeal Husar Light cavalryman, hussar Husförhör Household examination Husförhörslängd Household examination roll or Clerical survey Hustru Spouse, wife Hytta (järnbruk) Smelting house Håll och stygn Pneumonia Härad Civil district within a court, it's jurisdiction. Häradsdomare A honorary title of the oldest nämndeman in a häradsrätt (district court of law) Häradshövding District court judge. He was the chairman of a häradsrätt (district court of law). The häradshövding was the only member in the häradsrätt with a law degree. The others are called nämndemän (lay members of a court). Häradsprofoss A Häradsprofoss was responsible for the guarding of transportation of prisoners in rural areas and he was also guarding people taken into custody. Further, he also executed punishments such as flogging, gauntlets etc (Corporal punishments). See also Landsgevaldiger below. Häradsrätt District court of law in the countryside. This court's jurisdiction was a Härad. A “häradshövding” was the chairman of a “häradsrätt”. The “häradsrätt” was manned by the “häradshövding” and a board of 12 lay members called “nämndemän”. Since they were 12 members they were also called “tolvmän” (tolv = twelv). The häradsrätt convened three times per year, the so-called ”lagtima ting” (the regular court sessions) in spring, summer and fall. Each court session could last for one or more days depending on the number of cases they had to handle. For urgent matters there was also “urtima ting“ (extra court sessions). The Häradsrätt was replaced by the Tingsrätt in 1971. Courts in the cities were called Rådhusrätt. Indelningsverket (militära) Allottment system (the old system of organizing and financing the Swedish armed forces) Infanteri Infantry Jordbrukare Farmer, peasant Jordbruksarbetare, Farm laborer, farmhand Järnbruk Ironworks / Iron foundry Järnmalm Iron ore

Genealogy Terms K - O

Katolik Catholic Kavalleri / rytteri Cavalry Klart skepp (mil) General quarters (naval term) Klockare Parish clerk and organist Knekt (soldat) Soldier, infantry soldier Komminister/kaplan Assistant parish minister, assistant vicar (rector) (Church) Kommun Municipality, the local (municipal) authority Konfirmation Confirmation Kontrakt/Prosteri (kyrkan) Rural deanery (Church) Kontraktsprost Rural Dean (Church) Krig War Krigsarkivet Swedish Military Record Office / War Archive Krigsfartyg Warship, man-of-war Krigsfånge Prisoner of war Krigsmakten The armed forces Kronofogde County Police Commissioner (UK) / Enforcement Officer (US) Kung King Kunglig Royal Kusin First cousin Kusinbarn First cousin once removed Kusinbarnbarn First cousin second removed Kyrka Church Kyrkbokföring Parish regestration Kyrkböcker Church records / Parish registers Kyrkogård/begravningsplats Cemetery Kyrkoherde Parish minister in Church of Sweden - a Lutheran Church. Vicar (UK), rector, reverend, pastor Kyrkosamfund Church communion Kyrktorn Church tower, steeple Kyrkvaktmästare Verger, sexton Källa (informationskälla) Source references or Source of information Kärande (i domstol) Plaintiff (in legal proceedings) Kön (man/kvinna) Sex (male/female) Lag Law Lagman Chief judge in court of law Landsarkiven Regional/Provincial archives Landsfiskal District police superintendent (and public prosecutor) Landsgevaldiger A Landsgevaldiger was a title used in rural areas. In the countryside, a police districts corresponded to a “Härad” (Hundred). A hundred (härad) is an administrative division that is geographically part of a larger region. The police officer in charge of such a rural police district was called Länsman. The Länsman had several deputies called Fjärdingsman. There was a Fjärdingsman in each parish. The Landsgevaldiger profession was also called Häradsprofoss or Landsprofoss. A Landsgevaldiger was responsible for the guarding of transportation of prisoners in rural areas and he was also guarding people taken into custody. Further, he also executed punishments such as flogging, gauntlets etc (Corporal punishments). Landshövding County Governor Landskap Province Lantarbetare farm laborer, farmhand Lantmätare Land surveyor Legosoldater/legoknektar Mercenaries Linjeskepp Ships of the line Lysning Bann Lytt Crippled, disabled Läkare Physician, doctor Län County. The Swedish County (Län) have a role more similar to the State in the USA compared to the role of the US County. However, the Swedish Counties doesn't have the independence of the States in the USA. The US County is better compared to the Swedish “Kommun” (Municipality) rather then to the Swedish county (län). See also The Subdivisions of Sweden into Provinces and Counties Länsman Chief Constable (UK) / Sheriff (US) A länsman was a local police officer and had the authority to act as a police and proceed with police work. See also "fjärdningsman" (deputy). Lärling Apprentice Lönskaläge Illicit sexual relations between unmarried persons Lösdrivare Vagrant Mantal "Mantal" was a property tax code and every farm who had to pay taxes was assigned a "mantal". In the beginning (1600’s) one "mantal" meant a farm with a annual yield large enough to support the farmer's family and their farm hands. In the forest provinces in northern Sweden a farm of 1 "mantal" had to be big to produce a yield corresponding to 1 "mantal". In the plains in southern Sweden, with a better climate and a richer soil, a farm could be a lot smaller than in the north and still produce a yield of 1 "mantal". So “mantal” is not a value for the size of the farm but rather it’s capability of yielding a good crop. Farms with the same “mantal” paid the same amount of tax. Not all farms could produce a yield corresponding to 1 "mantal" but was still able support a family. It was common with farms of ½ "mantal or 5/8 "mantal" etc. Throughout the centuries the “mantal” rating has changed into lower values. Farms have been split up between siblings due to inheritance and the tax code has been adjusted to that in order to get a fair taxation. Farms in the 1700’s and 1800’s with a “mantal” rating of ½, ¼ or 1/8 could still support a family. A farm in the 1800’s with a “mantal” rating above 1 (1¼ for example) was a farm with a large yield. So, the “mantal” rates have changed over the years. Sometimes you will find the “mantal” rate for a fram in the Household Examination Rolls (Hfl). Mantalsskriven Registred for tax/census purposes Mantalslängd Tax/census records Masugn Blast furnace Medborgerligt förtroende [one's] civil (civic) rights Medelpad Province of Medelpad Menig Private soldier, soldier-of-rank-and-file Militärtjänstgöring Military service Mor Mother Morbror Uncle (mother's brother) Morfar Grandfather (mother's fathers or maternal grandfather) Morfars far Great-grandfather (on the mother's side) Mormor Grandmother (mother's mother or maternal grandmother) Moster Aunt (mother's sister) Murare Bricklayer Måg Son in law Målsman Guardian Mästarbrev A craftsmans diploma or certificate Mästersmed Master smith Mönstring (mil.) Muster, inspection, review, enrollment Namn Name Nationalitet Nationallity Nattvard The Holy Communion Nämndeman Courts in Sweden don't have a system with juries. Instead there are a judge and a number of "nämndemän". The "nämdemän" are appointed laymen. They are not chosen by random, you have to apply and be approved by the local council / county council (a position of trust). It is not a profession but something that's done beside the nämndeman's ordinary profession. Unlike a juryman the "nämndeman" actually is a member of the court and take an active part in the trial. Together with the judge they set the sentence. They can ask questions to the prosecuted. In courts of appeal there are more professional lawmen (jurists) then "nämndemän". However, in district courts and city courts the "nämndemän" are in majority. Officer Officer Ofärdig Crippled, disabled Ogift Unmarried / single Okänd fader Father unknown Orlovssedel In former days employees weren’t normally employed until further notice but for 1 year at a time. That is, they were signed up for a 12 months period at a time. At the end of the 12 months period the employer could renew the contract for another 12 months. During the 12 month employment period an employee could not leave his position to take up another job. The only time he could take up another employment was at the end of the 12 month employment period. That’s why the employee needed a certificate from his former employer stating that he was free to take another job. This certificate was called orlovssedel. The orlovssedel also contained some sort of “service record” and also information if he was in debt to his former employer. Ort Place Oäkta barn Illegitimate child

Genealogy Terms P - R

Pappersbruk Papermill Pappersmassa Paper pulp Pastor Parish minister, pastor Pastorat Parish Pastorsexpedition Parish office Patronymikon Patronymic Piga Maid Polis The Police Poliskonstapel Police constable / Police officer / Patrolman Predikstol Church pulpit Prins Prince Prinsessa Princess Proband Proband or subject. The person you start with when you do genealogical table (family tree) where you start with a specific person and do a genealogical research back in time tracing this person's ancestors. Profoss Provost / Flogmaster (military) Prost Rural Dean (church) Prosteri/Kontrakt (kyrkan) Rural deanery (church) Protestanter Protestants Präst Clergyman, Vicar (UK), Parish Minister. Priest (catholic), Pastor, Reverend. Prästgård Vicarage (UK), parsonage (US), rectory, minister's house, parsonage Rakt nedstigande led (släktskap) A lineal (direct) descendant of... (kinship) Rakt uppstigande led (släktskap) In lineal (the direct line of) ascent (kinship) Regemente Regiment Rekrytering Recruitment Religion Religion Repslagare Rope-maker Residensstad County seat or County capital Riddarhuset The House of Nobility Riksarkivet The National Archive Riksdag The Swedish Parliament Riksdagshuset The Riksdag (Parliament) building Riksdagsman/Riksdagsledamot Member of the Swedish Riksdag (Parliament) Rulla Record, roll Rådhusrätt City courts of law before 1971 when they were replaced by the Tingsrätt. It was the borgmästare (mayor / chief magistrate) that was the chariman (judge) of the Råshusrätt. Courts in the countryside were called Häradsrätt. Rådman District court judge Räntmästare [äldre benämning på en tjänsteman som hade hand om en förvaltningsenhets ekonomi och förestod dess kontor] Treasurer Rättare Farm foreman (larger farms, manors etc) Rättegång Legal proceedings in a court of law Rödsot Dysentry
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Genealogy Hans Högman
Copyright © Hans Högman 2020-06-05

Svensk/Engelsk ordlista över

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Swedish / English dictionary -

Genealogy Terms, Occupations

Swedish/English

Dictionary, Genealogy

Terms - 1

Below you will find a dictionary with words and expressions you might come across while reading articles about Swedish genealogy. Use your browser's search function to find "your" word in the dictionary below.

Genealogy Terms A - E

Adel Noble (of noble birth) / The nobility (aristocracy) Adelsman Nobleman (peer) Amiralitetet The Admiralty (Navy) - the Admiralty Board Ana (förfader) - singular Ancestor (forefather) / a person in an ancestor chart Anor (förfäder) - plural Ancestors (forefathers) / persons in an ancestor chart Ansedel / personakt A personal record containing biographical data about an ancestor Antavla Ancestor chart, family tree. A chart where a specific person is the starting point for a genealogical study of this persons ancestors. Anförlust Pedigree collapse. A married couple normally have eight ancestors in the second generation, four on each side. However if two cousins marry they will partly have jointly grandparents. We have “lost” 2 persons in the second generation (6 instead of 8). This kind of situation in an ancestor chart is called “anförlust” in Swedish. Arrendator Tenant farmer Arrende Tenancy Arv Inheritance Arvsskifte Distribution of an inherited estate. Assessor Deputy judge in a court of law Barbarnsbarn Great-grandchildren Barn Children Barnbarn Grandchildren Barnhus/barnhem Orphanage Barnmorska Midwife Bataljon Battalion Begravning Burial / funeral Begravd i stillhet / begravd i tysthet ”Begravd i stillhet” or ”begravd i tysthet” means that it was a quiet funeral with only the closest family present. Berg Mountain Bergskollegium A department called Bergskollegium handled the Government control of the mining industry. This department has had different names throughout the centuries but the name Bergskollegium was used from 1744. Bergslag Mining district Bergsman A bergsman was the occupant of a bergshemman, a mine proprietor. The Bergsman could the sole owner or a part owner. So, a Bergsman was in the mining business. Bergmästare Mine-inspector. A bergmästare was appointed by the government and subordinated the Bergskollegium. The bergmästare’s job was to supervise the mining operations within his jurisdiction on behalf of the government. More exactly, among a Bergmästare’s duties was inspections and examinations the mines and the mining industry, evaluation of mines, supervision of government forests and supervision subordinated mining clerks, supervise that mining regulations were followed etc. Among his responsibilities was also to judge in disputes regarding mining matters in a special court of law called Bergstinget (Mining court of law). In the court the bergmästare had 7 assistants called nämndemän (A "nämndeman" is an appointed layman in a court of law – a lay assessor). The criminal cases could vary, for example cheating with weighing, payments, fractions between miners, or thefts. Larger cases like manslaughter or arguments about proprietorship to forests used by the mines etc was handled by the Häradsrätt – the ordinary district court of law in the countryside. A Bergsting session was held once a year, normally in May or June and was announced in the churches at the latest 10 weeks prior to the beginning of a Bergsting. The special courts of law the Bergsting represented were abolished in 1851. From then the mining cases were handled by the ordinary courts of law. Bergmästardöme Sweden was subdivided into 11 Bergmästardömen, and from the middle of the 18th century 12 bergmästardömen. A bergmästardöme was a territorial area (jurisdiction) and the term itself could be translated into mine-inspector’s jurisdiction. Bevis Evidence Beväring Conscript (soldier), recruit, draftee Biskop Bishop Bisittare Assessor, member of a district court of law Bonde Farmer, freeholder Borgmästare Mayor Bouppteckning Estate inventory proceeding Bouppteckningsdokument Probate records / estate inventory Bror Brother Brorsdotter Niece Brorson Nephew Brud Bride Brudgum Groom Bruk (ex: järnbruk eller papperbruk) Mill/works, for example ironworks or paper mill Bruksarbetare Laborer at a mill/factory/works. Ironworks: ironworker / foundryman. Paper mill: millman. Brukspatron Works proprietor. Foundry (ironworks) proprietor. (Paper) mill owner Brylling/fyrmänning Third Cousin Bröllop Wedding By Village Båtsman (motsv soldat) Seaman/deck hand (Navy personal provided by the Allotment System) Böter Fine (legal) Det stora nordiska kriget The Great Nordic War (1700 - 1721) Dombok Court records (court of law) Domprost Cathedral Dean (church) Domsaga The territorial district of a Häradsrätt. Domstol Court of law Dop Baptism/Christening Dopvittne Sponsor / Godparent Dotter Daughter Dragon Dragoon; A Dragoon was formerly mounted infantry. They traveled on horseback to the battlefield but they fought as foot soldiers. As mounted infantry they were very mobile units. It happened that dragoons fought as cavalry in battles. However, this was a type of warfare they weren't trained for and could end up in disaster. During the 18th century the dragoons were more and more used as cavalry and therefore also trained as cavalry. Finally it was only the name that separated them from other cavalry. During the 19th century dragoons was a term for heavy cavalry. Drottning Queen Dräng Farm hand Dödsboken Death records Dödsfödd Stillborn Döpa Baptize/Christen Egendom Property / estate Egendomsägare Owner of a property / estate. (An older Swedish spelling is: Egendomsegare) Eriksgata An Eriksgata was a King’s first tour of the country after being crowned

Genealogy Terms F - J

Faddrar (vid dop) Witnesses (at baptism) Far Father Farbror Uncle (father's brother) Farfar Grandfather (father's fathers or paternal grandfather) Farfars far Great-grandfather (on the father's side - paternal) Farmor Grandmother (father's mother or paternal grandmother) Faster Aunt (father's sister) Fattig Poor Fattighus Workhouse/poorhouse Fattigjon Pauper Fideikommiss Entailed estate Filare (yrke) Filer. A "filer" was a craftsman working for example in a workshop filing off or smoothing parts made of steel or iron with a file. Casting shops weren’t able to cast parts with 100% precision in the past. In order to fit different parts together filers were needed to file off or smooth the parts in order to achieve the required precision. There were also other types of filers; for example, filers sharpening sawblades. Fiskare Fisherman Fjärdingsman Parish constable (UK) / Sheriff's Deputy (US) A fjärdingsman was a deputy and didn't have the right to act in police matters on his own. He always had to act on orders by the länsman. See also länsman. Flottan (örloggsflottan) The Navy Flottare Log driver / Floater Log driving or floating was a way of conveying timber or logs from the locale of lumbering to sawmills and pulp mills downstream using the current of a river. The people employed to do this were called floaters or log drivers. Flottning Conveying timber in floats, log driving Flytta Move. "Flytta från" = move from. "Flytta till" = Move to. Flyttbetyg Moving certificate Forskning Research Fort/Borg Fortress Fotsoldat Foot soldier Fregatt Frigate Friherre/Friherrinna Baron/Baroness Frånskild Divorced Frälsebefallningsman A frälsebefallningsman was a person authorized by a noble family to oversee a castle/estate and its agricultural produce. In other words, an administrator of a landed estate owned by a noble family (fräsle), i.e. a bailiff. Furir Sergeant Fru Mrs. Fröken Ms. Fånge Prisoner Fältväbel Sergeant major Fängelse Prison Född Born Födelse Birth Födelsebevis, födelseattest Birth certificate Födelseboken Birth records Födelseort Place of birth Församling/socken Parish. See socken Föräldrar Parents Gallärflottan Galley Feet Garnison Garrison Generaldirektör Agency Director (US) Generalmönsterrulla General-muster roll Gesäll Journeyman Gesällprov Qualifying piece of work for an apprentice to become a journeyman in a guild Gevaldiger An occupation title used in different lines of occupations such as police, military, and prisons. Gevaldiger was a title used by the Swedish police until 1850. Stadsgevaldiger was a police officer in a city and Landsgevaldiger was a kind of police officer in rural areas. The Stadsgevaldiger was also known as Polisgevaldiger. So, a Stadsgevaldiger was a police officer. A superior police title was Övergevaldiger. The title gevaldiger has also been used as a title of an occupation, within the correctional care, for prison officers, i.e. Fånggevaldiger. One of his duties was to supervise the transportation of prisoners. Within the military, gevaldiger was a kind of military police (Profoss) known as Regementsgevaldiger (Provost-marshal). In mining areas, there was the Bergsgevaldiger. Gift (som i civilstatus) Married Gods (slott etc) Estate, Manor Godsägare Landed proprietor, landowner, estate owner, land lord Grenadjär A form of infantryman (Grenadier) Greve/Grevinna Count (Earl in the UK) / Countess Grosshandlare Wholesale dealer, wholesaler Gruva (järngruva) Mine (iron mine) Gruvarbetare Miner Gårdsfogde A gårdsfogde (also inspektor, befallningsman, and rättare) was a person hired to oversee or manage a manor/large farm for the owner. Today we would call such a hired person “förvaltare” which translates into “bailiff” or “farm bailiff”. Gästgivare Innkeeper Gästgiveri Inn Hammarsmedsämbetet (Skrå) The guild for hammersmiths Handelsman Merchant Hantverkare Craftsmen / artisan Hembygdsgård Local history center (US) / Village hall (UK) / Community center Hemman Homestead, freehold Hemmansägare Farmer, freeholder, owner of a homestead Hemvist Residence Herr Mr. Herrgård Country estate, Manor Hertig/Hertiginna Duke/Duchess Hovrätt Circuit court of appeal (Regional court) Hovrättsråd Judge of appeal Husar Light cavalryman, hussar Husförhör Household examination Husförhörslängd Household examination roll or Clerical survey Hustru Spouse, wife Hytta (järnbruk) Smelting house Håll och stygn Pneumonia Härad Civil district within a court, it's jurisdiction. Häradsdomare A honorary title of the oldest nämndeman in a häradsrätt (district court of law) Häradshövding District court judge. He was the chairman of a häradsrätt (district court of law). The häradshövding was the only member in the häradsrätt with a law degree. The others are called nämndemän (lay members of a court). Häradsprofoss A Häradsprofoss was responsible for the guarding of transportation of prisoners in rural areas and he was also guarding people taken into custody. Further, he also executed punishments such as flogging, gauntlets etc (Corporal punishments). See also Landsgevaldiger below. Häradsrätt District court of law in the countryside. This court's jurisdiction was a Härad. A “häradshövding” was the chairman of a “häradsrätt”. The “häradsrätt” was manned by the “häradshövding” and a board of 12 lay members called “nämndemän”. Since they were 12 members they were also called “tolvmän” (tolv = twelv). The häradsrätt convened three times per year, the so-called ”lagtima ting” (the regular court sessions) in spring, summer and fall. Each court session could last for one or more days depending on the number of cases they had to handle. For urgent matters there was also “urtima ting“ (extra court sessions). The Häradsrätt was replaced by the Tingsrätt in 1971. Courts in the cities were called Rådhusrätt. Indelningsverket (militära) Allottment system (the old system of organizing and financing the Swedish armed forces) Infanteri Infantry Jordbrukare Farmer, peasant Jordbruksarbetare, Farm laborer, farmhand Järnbruk Ironworks / Iron foundry Järnmalm Iron ore

Genealogy Terms K - O

Katolik Catholic Kavalleri / rytteri Cavalry Klart skepp (mil) General quarters (naval term) Klockare Parish clerk and organist Knekt (soldat) Soldier, infantry soldier Komminister/kaplan Assistant parish minister, assistant vicar (rector) (Church) Kommun Municipality, the local (municipal) authority Konfirmation Confirmation Kontrakt/Prosteri (kyrkan) Rural deanery (Church) Kontraktsprost Rural Dean (Church) Krig War Krigsarkivet Swedish Military Record Office / War Archive Krigsfartyg Warship, man-of-war Krigsfånge Prisoner of war Krigsmakten The armed forces Kronofogde County Police Commissioner (UK) / Enforcement Officer (US) Kung King Kunglig Royal Kusin First cousin Kusinbarn First cousin once removed Kusinbarnbarn First cousin second removed Kyrka Church Kyrkbokföring Parish regestration Kyrkböcker Church records / Parish registers Kyrkogård/begravningsplats Cemetery Kyrkoherde Parish minister in Church of Sweden - a Lutheran Church. Vicar (UK), rector, reverend, pastor Kyrkosamfund Church communion Kyrktorn Church tower, steeple Kyrkvaktmästare Verger, sexton Källa (informationskälla) Source references or Source of information Kärande (i domstol) Plaintiff (in legal proceedings) Kön (man/kvinna) Sex (male/female) Lag Law Lagman Chief judge in court of law Landsarkiven Regional/Provincial archives Landsfiskal District police superintendent (and public prosecutor) Landsgevaldiger A Landsgevaldiger was a title used in rural areas. In the countryside, a police districts corresponded to a “Härad” (Hundred). A hundred (härad) is an administrative division that is geographically part of a larger region. The police officer in charge of such a rural police district was called Länsman. The Länsman had several deputies called Fjärdingsman. There was a Fjärdingsman in each parish. The Landsgevaldiger profession was also called Häradsprofoss or Landsprofoss. A Landsgevaldiger was responsible for the guarding of transportation of prisoners in rural areas and he was also guarding people taken into custody. Further, he also executed punishments such as flogging, gauntlets etc (Corporal punishments). Landshövding County Governor Landskap Province Lantarbetare farm laborer, farmhand Lantmätare Land surveyor Legosoldater/legoknektar Mercenaries Linjeskepp Ships of the line Lysning Bann Lytt Crippled, disabled Läkare Physician, doctor Län County. The Swedish County (Län) have a role more similar to the State in the USA compared to the role of the US County. However, the Swedish Counties doesn't have the independence of the States in the USA. The US County is better compared to the Swedish “Kommun” (Municipality) rather then to the Swedish county (län). See also The Subdivisions of Sweden into Provinces and Counties Länsman Chief Constable (UK) / Sheriff (US) A länsman was a local police officer and had the authority to act as a police and proceed with police work. See also "fjärdningsman" (deputy). Lärling Apprentice Lönskaläge Illicit sexual relations between unmarried persons Lösdrivare Vagrant Mantal "Mantal" was a property tax code and every farm who had to pay taxes was assigned a "mantal". In the beginning (1600’s) one "mantal" meant a farm with a annual yield large enough to support the farmer's family and their farm hands. In the forest provinces in northern Sweden a farm of 1 "mantal" had to be big to produce a yield corresponding to 1 "mantal". In the plains in southern Sweden, with a better climate and a richer soil, a farm could be a lot smaller than in the north and still produce a yield of 1 "mantal". So “mantal” is not a value for the size of the farm but rather it’s capability of yielding a good crop. Farms with the same “mantal” paid the same amount of tax. Not all farms could produce a yield corresponding to 1 "mantal" but was still able support a family. It was common with farms of ½ "mantal or 5/8 "mantal" etc. Throughout the centuries the “mantal” rating has changed into lower values. Farms have been split up between siblings due to inheritance and the tax code has been adjusted to that in order to get a fair taxation. Farms in the 1700’s and 1800’s with a “mantal” rating of ½, ¼ or 1/8 could still support a family. A farm in the 1800’s with a “mantal” rating above 1 (1¼ for example) was a farm with a large yield. So, the “mantal” rates have changed over the years. Sometimes you will find the “mantal” rate for a fram in the Household Examination Rolls (Hfl). Mantalsskriven Registred for tax/census purposes Mantalslängd Tax/census records Masugn Blast furnace Medborgerligt förtroende [one's] civil (civic) rights Medelpad Province of Medelpad Menig Private soldier, soldier-of-rank-and-file Militärtjänstgöring Military service Mor Mother Morbror Uncle (mother's brother) Morfar Grandfather (mother's fathers or maternal grandfather) Morfars far Great-grandfather (on the mother's side) Mormor Grandmother (mother's mother or maternal grandmother) Moster Aunt (mother's sister) Murare Bricklayer Måg Son in law Målsman Guardian Mästarbrev A craftsmans diploma or certificate Mästersmed Master smith Mönstring (mil.) Muster, inspection, review, enrollment Namn Name Nationalitet Nationallity Nattvard The Holy Communion Nämndeman Courts in Sweden don't have a system with juries. Instead there are a judge and a number of "nämndemän". The "nämdemän" are appointed laymen. They are not chosen by random, you have to apply and be approved by the local council / county council (a position of trust). It is not a profession but something that's done beside the nämndeman's ordinary profession. Unlike a juryman the "nämndeman" actually is a member of the court and take an active part in the trial. Together with the judge they set the sentence. They can ask questions to the prosecuted. In courts of appeal there are more professional lawmen (jurists) then "nämndemän". However, in district courts and city courts the "nämndemän" are in majority. Officer Officer Ofärdig Crippled, disabled Ogift Unmarried / single Okänd fader Father unknown Orlovssedel In former days employees weren’t normally employed until further notice but for 1 year at a time. That is, they were signed up for a 12 months period at a time. At the end of the 12 months period the employer could renew the contract for another 12 months. During the 12 month employment period an employee could not leave his position to take up another job. The only time he could take up another employment was at the end of the 12 month employment period. That’s why the employee needed a certificate from his former employer stating that he was free to take another job. This certificate was called orlovssedel. The orlovssedel also contained some sort of “service record” and also information if he was in debt to his former employer. Ort Place Oäkta barn Illegitimate child

Genealogy Terms P - R

Pappersbruk Papermill Pappersmassa Paper pulp Pastor Parish minister, pastor Pastorat Parish Pastorsexpedition Parish office Patronymikon Patronymic Piga Maid Polis The Police Poliskonstapel Police constable / Police officer / Patrolman Predikstol Church pulpit Prins Prince Prinsessa Princess Proband Proband or subject. The person you start with when you do genealogical table (family tree) where you start with a specific person and do a genealogical research back in time tracing this person's ancestors. Profoss Provost / Flogmaster (military) Prost Rural Dean (church) Prosteri/Kontrakt (kyrkan) Rural deanery (church) Protestanter Protestants Präst Clergyman, Vicar (UK), Parish Minister. Priest (catholic), Pastor, Reverend. Prästgård Vicarage (UK), parsonage (US), rectory, minister's house, parsonage Rakt nedstigande led (släktskap) A lineal (direct) descendant of... (kinship) Rakt uppstigande led (släktskap) In lineal (the direct line of) ascent (kinship) Regemente Regiment Rekrytering Recruitment Religion Religion Repslagare Rope-maker Residensstad County seat or County capital Riddarhuset The House of Nobility Riksarkivet The National Archive Riksdag The Swedish Parliament Riksdagshuset The Riksdag (Parliament) building Riksdagsman/Riksdagsledamot Member of the Swedish Riksdag (Parliament) Rulla Record, roll Rådhusrätt City courts of law before 1971 when they were replaced by the Tingsrätt. It was the borgmästare (mayor / chief magistrate) that was the chariman (judge) of the Råshusrätt. Courts in the countryside were called Häradsrätt. Rådman District court judge Räntmästare [äldre benämning på en tjänsteman som hade hand om en förvaltningsenhets ekonomi och förestod dess kontor] Treasurer Rättare Farm foreman (larger farms, manors etc) Rättegång Legal proceedings in a court of law Rödsot Dysentry